One of the most significant factors of environmental harm in the 21st century is highly increased pollution which transcends national boundaries. As a consequence of air pollution, one of the most worrisome environmental threats, climate change is occurring. Climate change is understood to be a complex process with globally negative effects.
The global effect of climate change fully illustrates the fact that currently most environmental threats may be characterized as transnational phenomena. In this case environmentally harmful activities carried out in a particular country or region may have many negative consequences in other countries or regions. For this reason, the efforts to tackle most environmental threats should not be restricted to national level and must be pursued internationally.
The first significant event in pursuing international policy of climate change prevention occurred in 1992 when the Framework Convention on Climate Change was produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro. The main objective of the Convention is 'stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' (article No. 2).
The Convention went into force in March, 1994. It is recognized as a universal treaty globally embracing international efforts for the prevention of climate change.
In pursuance of legally binding implementation of the Convention the arrangement of protocol which determines definite commitments for the parties and the specific mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gases was scheduled. For this purpose the Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997 in Japan. It went into force in 2005. Together with the Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto Protocol forms the global climate change regime.